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I am currently writing a bullet point history of the popularization of SPICE in the engineering community. The emphasis is on the path SPICE has taken to arrive on the most engineering desktops. Because of this emphasis, my history begins with the original Berkeley SPICE variants, continues onto PSpice (its limited, but free student version made SPICE ubiquitous) and culminates with LTspice (because, at over three million downloads, it has reached many more users than all other SPICE variants combined).
Power electronics has always provided a special challenge for simulation. As Hamish mentioned above, one of the problems encountered is inductor cutsets, and capacitor loops that lead to numerical instability in the simulation matrices.
If you are interested in power electronics design at the board or system level, I would recommend LTspice (note the correct spelling) by far above all the others. In addition to being superb for IC design (Linear Tech uses LTspice to design all their own ICs), it also has been specifically designed to run board level, switched mode simulations.
You can calculate current setting of overcurrent relay by using next expression:
Isetting ≥ (ks*Imaxopam)/(a*pi)

The baseline figure should be obtained from either factory or during initial commissioning (as per factory condition). So performing commissioning in the rain, dirty surface, high humidity may result in low values for both dry type and oil filled equipment. Low reading in itself does not indicate bad insulation where the machine cannot be returned to service.
With regards to hazardous areas, Electrical equipment to be installed in those areas should comply with the zone classification. I believe the location where you are intending to install this motor would have been classified according to your local classification standards or IEC 60079 for Liquid/gas/vapour explosives OR IEC 61241 for dusts. Therefore your motor should is to be certified to be installed in those areas, to verify this information you can ask the manufacturer or supplier to provide the Certificate of conformity.
Making a connection of 3 phase motor the nameplate shows different voltages for delta it is 380-400 volt and 660-690 volt for star, what option should be selected? the supply Line to Line voltage is 380-400.
Each stator winding of the motor can withstand 380-400 V.
Thus, if you connect your motor (the stator of your motor) in delta, it should be connected to 380-400 V line-to-line.
It is a well documented phenomenon that underground cables fail a week or so after lightning activity. Some of the can be attributed to lightning surges that enter the primary conductor and reflect off an open as you indicate. I believe the majority of the failures come from lightning strikes on adjacent structures or trees that reach the cable through ground and cause slight damages to the cable insulation.
There are two types of reactive consumptions in AC power system, inductive and capacitive reactances. We can not call them losses. The loss of a transmission line is the active power consumed by the line resistance which is determined by the current on the line. Reactive power can adjust the power factor and control the apparent power, then the current and losses on the line.
If S ≤ 16 then the Minimum cross-sectional area of the corresponding earth conductor = S mm2
If 16 < S ≤ 35 then the Minimum cross-sectional area of the corresponding earth conductor = 16 mm2
if S > 16 , then the Minimum cross-sectional area of the corresponding earth conductor = S/2 mm2
The Fuse for Electrical Motor is efficient for O/C (Short Circuit, either L-G or L-L) or/and internal fault in the Motor windings. Taking into consideration the fuse rating considering the Starting current of the Motor. Therefore the fuse will not be effective for overload protection on the similar case.
There are two important different parameters as far as the disconnection/connection of Electrical utilities is concerned.
- Breaking capacity.
- Making Capacity.
Gozuk Service Gozuk Blog: all about electric motor control & drives industries development in energy saving applications.


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