Some of these conditions are convenient and some are mandatory. The convenient conditions are: Same voltage Ratio and Turns Ratio, Same Percentage Impedance, Same KVA Rating, Same Position of Tap changer. The mandatory conditions are: Same Phase Angle Shift, Same Polarity, Same Phase Sequence and Same Frequency. When the convenient conditions are not met paralleled operation is possible but not optimal.
Resistance Grounding Systems have many advantages over solidly grounded systems including arc-flash hazard reduction, limiting mechanical and thermal damage associated with faults, and controlling transient overvoltages. High resistance grounding systems may also be employed to maintain service continuity and assist with locating the source of a fault.
Power losses of ferromagnetic core depend from voltage and frequency. In case where is no-load secondary winding, power transformer has a power losses in primary winding (active and reactive power losses) which are very small, due to low current of primary winding (less than 1% of rated current) and power losses of ferromagnetic core (active and reactive power losses) which are the highest in case of rated voltage between ends of primary winding.
I hate to call them harmonic currents. The do submit to Fourier analysis, but you are probably dealing with AC to DC power supplies. If you look at the current pulses, you will see that each pulse is about 1-2 milliseconds in duration in alternating directions. If you sum these all in the neutral there is the appearance of what looks like 180 Hertz in the neutral.
NGR stands for Neutral Grounding Resistor. When an earth fault current occurs on a plant, assuming that there is no external device presented to limit the earth fault current, the magnitude of the earth fault current is limited only by the earth impedance presented between the point of fault (to earth) and the return path (typically a star point of a transformer).
Humidity plays important part in flashover. We faced a problem of flashovers in Air insulated 11kV Switchgear busbar compartments in rainy seasons. Any sharp edge will ionize the surrounding air, which becomes conductive to high voltage discharge. Moisture will hasten the process of discharge. During HV test also this aspect should be kept in mind.
DCS distributed control system: you can control the system within a certain given facility from different locations, either control room or other places, and you should keep in mind this facility could be a in several locations but yet, hard-wired interconnected. while RTU (remote Terminal Unit): you can control the system remotely through internet or a secure satellite connection which in not recommended for sensitive operations/process but it is ok for stand alone and not crucial systems. and more.
Overcurrent protection uses as back-up protection for protection generators from faults between two windings of stator (two phases of stator). Setting of overcurrent protection depends from two settings: current setting of relay protection and time setting of relay protection.
In bushing insulation test there are three major current elements which any of those could affect the test result. These current elements are Capacitive current, leakage current and creepage current. In Tan Delta or power factor test the affective current element to the test is called creepage current which needs to be filtered.
PLC is defined as Programmable Logic Controller. It is a hardware, Includes processor, I/P & O/P Modules, Counters, Function Blocks, Timers,,, etc. The I/Os are either Analogue or Digitals or both. PLC can be configured to suit the application and to programmed in a logic manner by using one of the programing language such as Statement List, Ladder Diagram,, etc
The surge impedance loading (SIL) of a line is the power load at which the net reactive power is zero. So, if your transmission line wants to "absorb" reactive power, the SIL is the amount of reactive power you would have to produce to balance it out to zero. You can calculate it by dividing the square of the line-to-line voltage by the line's characteristic impedance.
As per Torque/Slip characteristic for AC Motor, the value of the Max. Torque can be developed is constant while the Starting Torque occurs @ S=.1, (T proportional to r2 and S also proportional to r2 where r2 is the rotor resistance, the ratio r2/x2 when equal to 1 gives the max. Torque w.r.t Slip at Starting. Wound rotor motors are suitable and recommended for application for MV drive where it is required to be started on load such as ID. Fans, S.D Fans, Drill, etc.
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