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Reactive consumptions in AC power system

There are two types of reactive consumptions in AC power system, inductive and capacitive reactances. We can not call them losses. The loss of a transmission line is the active power consumed by the line resistance which is determined by the current on the line. Reactive power can adjust the power factor and control the apparent power, then the current and losses on the line.

The minus reactive power means capacitive load is higher than the inductive load, which happens when the transmission line has no load or with pure resistive load because the capacitive load along the TL dominates the reactive load. In this situation the voltage at the end of the line should be higher than the one at the beginning (you should get it when you get the negative reactive power).

When the load (80% of the industry load is inductive) increases, the reactive power will be positive as the inductive load will dominate the reactive power consumption, and then voltage will lower than that at the beginning. So the optimized choice for the reactive load is that in power plant generating less reactive power (reducing the losses on the line) and generating the compensating reactive power (negative reactive power) at consumer side by using capacitor banks or synchronizing motor, which can increase the power factor of the consumption and regulate the voltage (if the transformer has no taps), and then efficiency (save money) as well.

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