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If the material is non-grain-oriented, the path of least resistance for the magnetic flux varies widely from point to point across the sheet.
If the material is grain-oriented, the material is aligned such that there is a significant reduction in the energy requirement for passing flux in one direction relative to any other.
Most electrical steels used in stator and rotor construction also have an insulating coating applied; some of these are organic materials and some are inorganic (solvent-based) materials. The choice is typically made based on a combination of temperature gradient and local environmental laws. The inorganic (solvent) materials can generally withstand higher temperatures but are far less eco-friendly in the manufacture of the coating material or in the curing of the coating after it is applied.
This is a very simplified comparison for a very complex issue. Every manufacturer is somewhat different in their approach, and there are literally thousands of design details in each machine that can be accommodated as the designer balances efficiency VS performance VS cost VS reliability VS safety VS manufacturability.
MCC is shorted for Motor Control Center. Soft starter MCC control cabinet consists of the following components: (1) input circuit breaker, (2) Soft starter (including electronic control circuit and three phase thyristor), (3) soft starter bypass contactor, (4 ) secondary-side control circuit (for manual start, remote start, soft start and direct start functions selection and operation), and voltage, current display, fault, running and working status indicators.
In electric motor stop, the traditional control ways are accomplished by momentary power cutting off. But in lots of applications, it's not allowed the motor instant shutdown. For example: high-rise buildings, building's water pump system, it will appear huge water hammer during instant shutdown, to damage the pipe, even the pumps. To reduce and avoid "water hammer" phenomenon, the pumps motor need be shut down gradually, that is soft stop.
Motor starter (also known as soft starter, motor soft starter) is a electronic device integrates soft start, soft stop, light-load energy saving and various protection functions for motor controls. Its main components are the three phase reverse parallel thyristors between power supply and being controlled motor and related control circuits. Control the conduction angle of the three phase reverse parallel thyristors by different methods, to achieve different functions by the changeable of the input voltage on the controlled motors.
Due to variable frequency drive can adapt to various requirements in production process, especially in the industrial automation control applications, AC variable frequency control technology has risen to be the mainstream in industrial automation controls. AC variable speed system performance is almost same as DC speed control system, even exceed the DC speed control system. It adopts all-digital control ways to enhance information processing capabilities greatly.
Generally, variable frequency drive contains two components: rectifier and inverter. The rectifier converts incoming AC power to DC power, then the inverter converts DC power to the desired frequency AC power. In addition to these two parts, variable frequency drive may also contain transformer and battery. Wherein the transformer changes the voltage and isolates input/output circuit, the battery compensates energy loss inside the VFD drive circuit.
First you must optimize the design for the application. This is true for the electromagnetic and mechanical design. If you are making a general purpose motor then this will be more challenging because you will have to compromise to meet a variety of requirements. But the process is the same. You can design by hand using knowledge and experience or, better you can use the numerous design tools, many of which have perimetric design, variable ranges or optimization methods.
1. Voltage unbalance in supply side (1% volts could easily be 10% current).
2. Physical differences between individual stator coil shapes and connections causing small (but noticeable) resistance changes.
3. Unsymmetrical magnetic circuit - not as big a deal in the smaller "ring" lamination designs, unless highly saturated.
4. Lightly loaded machines will exhibit far higher unbalance than those loaded closer to the full nameplate rating (mostly due to the magnetizing current requirements and associated core/stray loss).
For 3 phase motor designs, there is hardly any slot combination that will yield a perfectly smooth torque-speed curve. Keeping the following rules in mind will (mostly) avoid the combinations that tend to amplify magnetic noise, harmonics, and parasitic torques.
My experience with the types of motors in electric vehicle is the following. There are three choices for motors in EVs, permanent magnet PM, integral permanent magnet IPM, and induction motor IM. They each have their pros and cons. A PM has the highest power density.
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