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What is the surge impedance load?

The surge impedance loading (SIL) of a line is the power load at which the net reactive power is zero. So, if your transmission line wants to "absorb" reactive power, the SIL is the amount of reactive power you would have to produce to balance it out to zero. You can calculate it by dividing the square of the line-to-line voltage by the line's characteristic impedance.

Transmission lines can be considered as, a small inductance in series and a small capacitance to earth, - a very large number of this combinations, in series. Whatever voltage drop occurs due to inductance gets compensated by capacitance. If this compensation is exact, you have surge impedance loading and no voltage drop occurs for an infinite length or, a finite length terminated by impedance of this value (SIL load). (Loss-less line assumed!). Impedance of this line can be proved to be sqrt (L/C). If capacitive compensation is more than required, which may happen on an unloaded EHV line, then you have voltage rise at the other end, the ferranti effect. Although given in many books, it continues to remain an interesting discussion always.

The capacitive reactive power associated with a transmission line increases directly as the square of the voltage and is proportional to line capacitance and length.

Capacitance has two effects:

1 Ferranti effect
2 rise in the voltage resulting from capacitive current of the line flowing through the source impedances at the terminations of the line.

SIL is Surge Impedance Loading and is calculated as (KV x KV) / Zs their units are megawatts.

Where Zs is the surge thing is the surge impedance and other very different is the surge impedance loading.
thank you for your valuable information regarding sil...
---->> by shubham kawale
nice explanation
---->> by rakesh
thank you for your basic information which i donot know
---->> by bijay kumar
Very clear explanation on the topic.
---->> by john sink

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