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Energy Efficient Motor VS Standard motor

This is a very simplified comparison for a very complex issue. Every motor manufacturer is somewhat different in their approach, and there are literally thousands of design details in each machine that can be accommodated as the designer balances efficiency VS performance VS cost VS reliability VS safety VS manufacturability.

To generalize a bit, take a look at the following list. Not everything is there (not by a long shot!) but there should be enough to give you a reasonable overview. Note that some items are "design" related, while others are "operation" related.

1. Use a lower loss material for both stator and rotor laminations.
2. Use a larger copper cross-section for the same power rating.
3. Skew rotor winding with respect to stator winding.
4. Use more magnetic material (diameter, length, or both) to reduce flux densities.
5. Effectively size the machine for a somewhat higher rating than nameplate (because the typical peak of the efficiency curve occurs somewhere between 70 and 85 percent "rated" load).
6. Operate the machine at reduced temperatures and/or increase coolant flow.
7. Limit input frequency and/or voltage variation to tighter tolerance (note that this is a specification approach, not a manufacturing approach).
8. Better bearings / lubrication to reduce friction loss.
9. More care taken with internal geometry - i.e. closed slots, large air gaps, generous tooth dimensions, smooth surfaces, etc - to reduce windage.

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