# FAQ

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Well first let get one thing straight for transformers: the higher the line frequency, the lower the core (iron) losses! The core power loss are proportional to kf*B^2 approximately for any machine, dynamic or static. But transformers are self-excited static machines, meaning the flux density B is reverse proportional to the line frequency, therefore Pcoreloss = kB^2*f=k*(1/f)^2*f=k/f... so the higher f, the lower the losses. However, increasing the frequency also increases the magnetizing inductance - lowering the magnetizing current. For if you increase the frequency you may want to increase the voltage. But of course this is not usually practical, as line voltage of 60Hz systems is usually lower than those of 50Hz systems. So operating a 50Hz transformer at 60Hz should be safe, but may result in higher voltage drop because of lower magnetizing current and because of higher leakage inductance (the series inductance).
Q: What should be the power factor of a generator connected to national grid in order to have maximum stability? Whether it should be high or low?
First, specify that this is an isolated system with two generators feeding the same bus. Operation of an isolated system is different than a grid connected system, and the mode setting of the governors have to be set to accommodate this. Depending upon the prime mover type and governor model, improper tuning will manifest itself in speed variations. The size of the two machines relative to each other, as well as their size relative to the load, can have measurable impact as well.
Even the humble motor car runs diagnostics that the garage read to see the problems with your car. This doesn't involve technicians looking at the code that controls the car but is 100% driven by the faults flagged by the car's management system programs. These could even be displayed to the users, the drivers like me and you but the manufacturers don't want amateurs hacking around their management systems and you know that is exactly what we would do.
The generator designers will have to determine the winding cross section area and specific current/mm2 to satisfy the required current, and they will have to determine the required total flux and flux variation per unit of time per winding to satisfy the voltage requirement.
For AM & FM radio & some data communications adding the QP filter make sense. Now that broadband, wifi, data communications of all sizes & flavours exist - any peak noise is very likely to cause interuptions & loss of integrity of data - all systems are being 'cost reduced' ensuring that they will be more susceptible to noise.
I would like to share these tips with everybody. A current mode controlled flyback converter always becomes unstable at low load due to the unavoidable leading edge current spike. It is not normally dangerous but as a design engineer I don’t like to look at it and listen to it.
I remember my very first power supply. They threw me in the deep end in 1981 building a multi-output 1 kW power supply. I was fresh from college, thought i knew everything, and consumed publications voraciously to learn more. Exciting times.
Since one end is tied together and the two other ends are from different substations, then you will have the classic voltage sending and receiving formula. Since the load is the one substation, then their will only be one power factor of the one load, so I would think this formula would apply: Es = Square Root of ((ErCosƟ + IR)² +(ErSinƟ +IX)²), which is square root of ((Receiving voltage times the cosine of the current phase angle plus current times resistance of the line)² + (Receiving voltage times Sine of the current phase angle plus current times reactance of the line)²).
Usually in your case there should be Electrical as well as Mechanical interlocks between the mains incomer & genset main breaker. ie both Sources will never be in Synchronism ( will not feeding the same load simultaneously).This measures will ensure that there will be only neutral point to the system.
If you are using soft starters now, do not take them out. These are really large motors and starting them across the line is not a good idea. The utility serving you should have designed their service based on you having soft starters for these motors. They probably also have a stipulation stating that you cannot start them all at the same time. Starting one or more them across the line may cause the utility's transformer fuses to fail.
Make sure your generator can start your largest motor and that your disconnect breaker or fuses can handle the inrush. I have seen this as an issue, especially when soft starters are used. Soft starters lower the inrush by exploiting the time characteristic. If the soft starter settings do not bring the motor up to speed quickly enough, the overload trip setting on your generator may trip.
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