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480volt Solidly grounded system versus HRG system

High Resistance Ground will limit the current to about 5 amps. The good news is that it no longer be necessary to trip on a ground fault. The bad news is that you may not connect any single phase loads to that substation. If the single phase loads are an issue, it may be possible to support all those loads with one or two feeders. In that situation, an isolation transformer is added to create a separately derived ground.

High resistance grounding is an excellent option in systems where continuity of service is important. However it is important to understand that if a ground fault occurs, it needs to located and repaired. This can be at a time convenient to facility operation, but it must be chased down and fixed.

This troubleshooting is accomplished by pulsing the ground fault current between 5 and 8 amps. Then a hand held clamp on ammeter is used to search out the offending feeder. Most HRG manufacturers include this feature into their design.

480volt solid ground system the fault current L-g is limited to the fault rating of the system may be 50KA,and usually have a disastrous consequences during faults and system has to be properly selected and protected accordingly.

Presently for some emergency power systems in power plants there is a 480voltb 3ph supply is made with neutral grounded through a NGT ie to limit the L-g fault current within 10Amp, and this may result in overvoltage of the other two phases too.  Overall this becomes a more stable system.

I would be very hesitant to use HRG for a medium voltage system. While a fault is on the system the neutral will not be at earth potential. This is usually not so important because the neutral is not carried to any of the loads on a high resistance grounded system. But the effect of the neutral straying away from ground potential is the two unfaulted phases will have a higher than normal line-to-ground voltage. Low voltage systems have a lot of built in margin in their insulation so it is not a problem with most equipment connected to that system. However MV equipment does not have so much "spare" insulation so the effect of high resistance grounding of a MV system is that it significantly increases the chance of migrating the fault from a single-line-to-ground fault to a double-line-to-ground or line-to-line fault.

Also at the point of the fault, the energy of 5 amps flowing in a 480 volt or 400 volt system may be somewhat dangerous but in most cases will be dissipated easily. On a higher voltage system, whether it is 4.16kV, 6.6kV, or higher, the energy at the point of the fault is higher and is much more likely to damage the insulation on the adjacent conductors and quickly turn into a more severe fault.

So I would resist using a high resistance grounded design on a medium voltage system (over 2000 volts).

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