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# Ground fault detection in a Delta system

We have system which is connected to 16kV/2.4 utility transformer (delta on secondary) and we are using 2.kV/480V transformer for loads after 2000ft. Utility wants to protect against ground fault in the system. I am planning to select a ground over voltage relay using a broken delta PTs on secondary. I am having problem with calculating the 3Vo value, How much voltage will you set to trip the relay for SLG or LLG fault.

Let's say you have a system 16kV/2.4kV with more than one, say 5 transformers T1, T2, T3....T5 interconnected transformers throughout your network, with the broken delta arrangement to detect the residual voltage on each of the transformer's delta side, If you have an earth fault say on the LV of T1, the voltage displacement gets picked up on the delta side of all 5 transformers and there is a very high probability that all 5 transformers get taken out. This is because this scheme does not look for the earth fault current or where it exists, as long as it is on the interconnected system where the source is able to support the earth fault. The moment it notices a voltage displacement, bang goes your CB to clear the fault irrespective of it's location.

A better scheme is to use the zig-zag transformer which offers a low impedance for zero sequence currents, generally used with a neutral grounding resistor to limit the current to more often than not the rated current (or lesser than that) of the transformer LV. So in a similar situation for an earth fault on T1 LV, the earth fault completes it's path through the earthed NGR resistor and back to the fault point. A sensitive earth fault relay connected to a CT connected between the grounded resistor and the neutral point of the zig-zag transformer, designed to take out both the HV & LV CBs of T1 will do the job, without fear of taking out the other transformers.

Of course if this is the only transformer you are talking of, then the voltage displacement method should work in principle, however I would still go ahead and install the zig-zag arrangement described above. Let me know your thoughts, and then we can start discussing about the magnitude of 3Vo or 3Io as the case may be.

When we talk about detection of Earth Faults, that means we want to know it without tripping, so, we should absolutely use "IT Earthing system" for LV side, then with this system we can use "IMD - Injection Monitoring Devices" that monitor when it happen, and if wanted send the tripping order to the installed Circuit Breaker.

By the way:
1- As the transformer's connection of secondary side is "Delta", we use one of 3 phase to be connected via a special impedance to the earth to have "IT" system. Noting that for some of "IMD" we don't need to use the special impedance as it's integrated inside the IMD.
2- In the most of "IMD" we can adjust the value of "Insulation level" where above of this value an Alarm signal by auxiliary contact will be sent.
3- Some of "IMD" have 2 levels can be adjusted "1st level for Alarm" and "2nd level for tripping".

Calculate (3 - 2) =

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