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Directional Numerical over current relay

If current will flow in positive direction then the relay will behave as a Normal over current relay and if current will flow in negative direction then the relay will behave as a Directional over current relay.....Why the angle between healthy line voltage and fault current is required for sensing the direction??

Suppose you have purely resistive circuit with a voltage source connected to it. Now take any arbitrary node X in the network Look at the current flow from the node. Now when the source voltage is positive the current flows from the say upper node of the source to the lower node of source. Now if you look at this current flow from the arbitrary node X mentioned above, the current will be moving towards the node X from one side and it is moving away on the other side of the arbitrary node X node in one half cycle.
Now in the next half cycle the same thing repeats but with one difference, that the direction of current flow changes.

Now you want to operate your relay when the current is moving away from the arbitrary node in the first half cycle. place a CT at the node with primary P1 towards the node X1 and p2 away and take Secondary S1 to the relay . Now when current flow is from P1 to P2 current flow in the secondary will be say S1 to S2 thru relay.

Now we can say that, when the arbitrary node voltage is positive current flows from P1 to P2 and we take this as our direction required for the relay to operate.

Again when you look back from the node you will see that when the arbitrary node is at higher potential current is flowing towards you. Now place another CT with P1 towards the arbitrary node P2 on the other side and connect another relay at s2 side (now you can visualise 2 CTs on either side of the node with P1 towards the node X in both CTs). The current will be flowing from P2 to P1 in this CT and hence S1 will be negative with respect to S2 and current flow in this relay will be in reverse direction as that of the first relay.

In the next half cycle the current direction reverses and first relay current will be s2 to s1 thru relay and second relay current is from S1 to S2 thru second relay.

Now we want the relay no 1 to operate and relay no 2 not to operate. how do you achieve it when you connect the current alone to the relay which is changing the direction in every half cycle .
To achieve this now you connect a PT at the same arbitrary node X and connect the voltage to both the relays. The same point of the PT secondary voltage is connected to both the relays. Now find the phase angle between the current in the first relay and the voltage. You will see that when node voltage is positive, the current flow in the first CT will be from P1- P2 in primary and S1 to S2 in the secondary. In this case let us say that the phase angle between voltage and current is Zero in the first relay.

What happens in the second relay and CT /PT. The voltage is same as first relay which is positive and the current flow in the CT is P2 to P1 and in relay it is S2 to S1
- meaning opposite direction to first relay . As the current is in reverse direction with respect to voltage we can say that they are out of phase (180 degree).
Now you set both relays to operate when the voltage and currents are in phase. observe the result in first half cycle . Relay 1 operates (phase angle between v and I zeo ) and relay 2 no operation ( phase angle 180 deg ).

In the second half cycle observe the phase angle of relay 1 . Voltage at node is negative. (voltage phasor reversed ) Current flows from P2 to P1 and S2 to s1 in the relay 1 (current phasor also reversed) still the phase angle is zero and hence relay 1 operates Similarly relay 2 restrains.

Hence we found that, the relay 1 operates in both half cycle and relay 2 restrains. This is the importance of Voltage for directional relay.

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