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Differences of Grounding, Bonding and Ground Fault Protection?

Grounding (or Earthing) - intentionally connecting something to the ground. This is typically done to assist in dissipating static charge and lightning energy since the earth is a poor conductor of electricity unless you get a high voltage and high current.

Bonding is the intentional interconnection of conductive items in order to tie them to the same potential plane -- and this is where folks get the confusion to grounding/earthing. The intent of the bonding is to ensure that if a power circuit faults to the enclosure or device, there will be a low-impedance path back to the source so that the upstream overcurrent device(s) will operate quickly and clear the fault before either a person is seriously injured/killed or a fire originates.

Ground Fault Protection is multi-purpose, and I will stay in the Low Voltage (<600 volts) arena. One version, that ends up being seen in most locations where there is low voltage (220 or 120 volts to ground) utilization, is a typically 5-7 mA device that's looking to ensure that current flow out the hot line comes back on the neutral/grounded conductor; this is to again protect personnel from being electrocuted when in a compromised lower resistance condition. Another version is the Equipment Ground Fault Protection, and this is used for resistive heat tracing or items like irrigation equipment; the trip levels here are around 30 mA and are more for prevention of fires. The final version of Ground Fault Protection is on larger commercial/industrial power systems operating with over 150 volts to ground/neutral (so 380Y/220, 480Y/277 are a couple typical examples) and -- at least in the US and Canada -- where the incoming main circuit interrupting device is at least 1000 amps (though it's not a bad idea at lower, it's just not mandated); here it's used to ensure that a downstream fault is cleared to avoid fire conditions or the event of 'Burn Down' since there's sufficient residual voltage present that the arc can be kept going and does not just self-extinguish.

In the Medium and High Voltage areas, the Ground Fault Protection is really just protective relaying that's monitoring the phase currents and operating for an imbalance over a certain level that's normally up to the system designer to determine.

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