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DC Drives Parameter Setting / Programming

Programming parameters associated with DC drives are extensive & similar to those used in conjunction with AC drives. An operator's panel is used for programming of control setup & operating parameters for a DC drive.

This signal is derived from a closely regulated fixed voltage source applied to a potentiometer. The potentiometer has the capability of accepting the fixed voltage & dividing it down to any value, For example, 10 to 0 V, depending on where it's set. A 10-V input to the drive from the speed potentiometer corresponds to maximum motor speed & 0 V corresponds to zero speed. Similarly any speed between zero & maximum can be obtained by adjusting the speed control to the appropriate setting.

In order to "close the loop" & control motor speed accurately, it's necessary to provide the control with a feed back signal related to motor speed. The standard method of doing this in a simple control is by monitoring the armature voltage & feeding it back into the drive for comparison with the input setpoint signal. The armature voltage feedback system is generally known as a voltage regulated drive.

A second & more accurate method of obtaining the motor speed feedback information is from a motor mounted tachometer. The output of this tachometer is directly related to the speed of the motor. When tachometer feedback is used, the drive is referred to as a speed regulated drive.

In some newer high-performance digital drives, the feedback can come from a motor-mounted encoder that feeds back voltage pulses at a rate related to motor speed.

These pulses are counted & processed digitally & compared to the setpoint, an error signal is produced to regulate the armature voltage & speed.

The second source of feedback information is obtained by monitoring the motor armature current. This is an accurate indication of the torque required by the load.

The current feedback signal is used to eliminate the speed droop that normally would occur with increased torque load on the motor & to limit the current to a value that will protect the power semiconductors from damage. The current-limiting action of most controls is adjustable & is usually called current limit or torque limit.

In most cases, when the controller is initially installed the speed potentiometer can be turned down to its lowest point & the output voltage from the controller will go to zero, causing the motor to stop. There are, how ever, situations where this is not desirable. E.g.,, there are some applications that may need to be kept running at a minimum speed & accelerated up to operating speed as necessary. The typical minimum speed adjustment is from 0 to 30 percent of motor base speed.

The maximum speed adjustment sets the maximum speed attainable. In some cases it's desirable to limit the motor speed (and machine speed) to something less than would be available at this maximum setting. The maximum adjustment allows this to be done.

Although a typical DC motor presents a mostly inductive load, there is always a small amount of fixed resistance in the armature circuit. IR compensation is a method used to adjust for the drop in a motor's speed due to armature resistance. This helps stabilize the motor's speed from a no-load to full-load condition. IR compensation should be applied only to voltage-regulated drives.

As its name implies, the acceleration time adjustment will extend or shorten the amount of time for the motor to go from zero speed up to the set speed. It also regulates the time it takes to change speeds from one setting (e.g., 40 per cent) to another setting (e.g., 80 percent).

The deceleration time adjustment allows loads to be slowed down over an extended period of time. example.., if power is removed from the motor & it stops in 3 seconds, then the deceleration time adjustment would allow you to adjust this time typically within a 0.5- to 30-second range.
Wonderful post, everything is very well explained. Thanks for the information.
---->> by Navneet Gill

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